Lifting the barriers to EV uptake – securing clearer and longer-term policy

Lifting the barriers to EV uptake – securing clearer and longer-term policy

Written by Darran Messem, Head of Transport and Sustainable Development

Delivering the UK Government’s targets for emission reduction and electric vehicle (EV) uptake depends on addressing three key challenges, according to a panel of EV experts convened by Madano.

Huge steps have been taken in the decarbonisation and electrification of the UK fleet, but there is much more to be done to (1) stimulate the demand side, (2) secure clearer and longer-term policy from Government and (3) increase automotive and energy cross-sector alignment to deliver the increased electricity grid flexibility, capacity and reliability to enable large-scale EV adoption.

Here we look at the second of these three challenges: securing clearer and longer-term policy.

When discussing demand-side challenges (see previous article in this series)the expert panel kept returning to the impact of confused policy signals on diesel together with the short-term nature of many policy instruments. Arguably the hardest work has to be done now to create the platform for increased demand over the next 20 years. It will be necessary to create more certainty in the market to change both buyer and user behaviour. This will require strong and consistent policy signals upon which informed choices can be made. Key among these signals are the financial signals sent by fiscal and taxation policy.

As the sudden and dramatic increase and then decrease in diesel vehicles shows, Government messaging and fiscal policy have a profound effect in shaping the vehicle market. Already there are clear messages and financial incentives, such as the plug-in car grant, to support EV uptake, but the expert panel’s view was that these signals are insufficient and inconsistent. Here there are three key concerns:

Incentives should be proportionate to emission impact to encourage the better choices. Currently the plug-in car grant applies to plug-in hybrid vehicles even though these may spend the majority of their working lives in combustion-engine operation, although it is recognised plug-in hybrids provide a positive interim technology that helps demonstrate and build confidence. The grant does not adequately reflect the whole-life electric operation of a pure EV. Further, the harmonisation of vehicle excise duty (VED) has not provided a clear market signal, and even greater differentiation in VED bands than existed in the past will be needed to drive clear and sustained patterns of demand. It was noted that VED costs are a key driver in the second-hand market.

Policy needs to be longer term to build confidence in the desired trajectory. There will be a change to EV tax for company cars in 2020. This is creating hesitance in the market today. Positive incentives could be brought forward. Norway is often cited as an example of a successful EV market, and the expert panel noted the consistency and strength of policy signals in Norway. Clear policy signals that extend beyond the short life of one Parliament are needed, which probably requires an Act of Parliament that binds future Governments, as is the case with the Climate Change Act of 2008.

Policy signals need to be consistent across the automotive and energy sectors to provide the necessary information and support. The desire to shift to electric mobility needs to be signalled through domestic charging infrastructure and tariffs, as well as through vehicle incentives and pricing. The expert panel was concerned that the financial structure on electricity pricing for domestic recharging is anything but clear with a potential £28bn hole in H.M. Treasury’s income resulting from petrol and diesel duty reductions, and the threat of this being recouped through domestic tariffs on recharging is acting as a brake on the market. Too few electricity suppliers are offering EV recharging tariffs. Smart meters are not addressing the requirement for optimising recharge time for off-peak supply. Swapping energy supplier remains insufficiently simple to create the market for easier tariffs and supply.

A concluding remark from Madano, who convened the panel and the background research. We set out with this series of articles and panel discussion to explore the barriers to EV uptake and the role of communication. The discussion has highlighted a number of key barriers, ranging public policy through engineering practicality to consumer perception, and we observe that in all cases communication is key, because electric mobility requires whole system change, and this requires joined up thinking. Insight – communication – impact.

This blog is part 3 of a series of 3. The final blog will cover the discussion on automotive and energy cross-sector alignment. You can read part 1 of the series on stimulating the demand side here.

Our expert panel (from Madano breakfast briefing event 18th July)

Madano is grateful to the expert panel who came together for this discussion and agreed to its write-up:

Angie Boakes, General Manager Electric Mobility, Royal Dutch Shell

Professor Paul Maropoulos, Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Research and Enterprise Knowledge Exchange, Aston University

Evie Martell, Marketing Manager, Chargemaster

Huw Owen, Head of Digital, Tata Motors

Jay Parmar, Policy Director, BVRLA

Valerie Shawcross CBE, Transport for London Board Member, and Former Deputy Mayor of London for Transport (attending in a personal capacity)

Akshai Srinivasan, Electric Mobility Manager, BP

Peter Stephens, Head of External Affairs and Government Relations, Nissan

Lifting the barriers to EV uptake – stimulating the demand side

Lifting the barriers to EV uptake – stimulating the demand side

Written by Darran Messem, Head of Transport and Sustainable Development

Delivering the UK Government’s targets for emission reduction and electric vehicle (EV) uptake depends on addressing three key challenges, according to a panel of EV experts at an event hosted by Madano on 18th July.

Huge steps have been taken in the decarbonisation and electrification of the UK fleet, but there is much more to be done to (1) stimulate the demand side, (2) secure clearer and longer-term policy from Government and (3) increase automotive and energy cross-sector alignment to deliver the grid flexibility, capacity and reliability to enable large-scale EV adoption. Here we look at the first of these three challenges: stimulating the demand side.

The automotive industry has launched 13 fully-electric cars and over 20 plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles, and sales of plug-in vehicles have steadily climbed. The rate of growth however is nowhere near fast enough to deliver the UK Government’s 2040 and 2050 objectives for ending the sale of conventional engines and delivering zero emission transport. The successes on the supply side need to be matched on the demand side by encouraging new attitudes towards mobility, improving information, and enabling pent-up demand to be fulfilled.

Addressing range anxiety and stimulating demand is not just a function of battery capacity and efficiency. Five key recharging requirements need addressing:

  • Interoperability and reliability of recharging must emulate the system compatibility and reliability of the conventional petrol station.
  • Strategic recharging infrastructure is needed to fulfil long-distance needs.
  • Better access to private charging facilities is required to build confidence and a sense of control.
  • Optimising the network is necessary to put recharging facilities where they are required.
  • Better information provision on recharging availability is required to build both confidence in and access to recharging.

Stimulating demand through key multiplier effects in the market will need to play a more prominent role. The expert panel noted a number of good examples:

  • Publicly accessible demonstration fleets like London’s taxi fleet, enabling people to experience an EV.
  • Pockets of infrastructure development around charging stations, with cafes and shops, enabling best use of charge times.
  • Seeding EV adoption, to stimulate the knock-on effect of wider EV uptake. The best advertising for EVs are existing EV drivers.
  • Building critical mass enhances charging station reliability because of the scale economies of monitoring and maintenance.

Further extension of vehicle choice is needed to stimulate demand in line with EV targets. In particular the vehicle range needs to be extended beyond the conventional saloon and hatchback:

  • Vans are a significant (and growing) source of emissions and because of short distance application are ideally suited for electrification.
  • Sports utility vehicles are a popular and growing vehicle class which, due to their size and weight, tend to be higher-emission.
  • The market leading brands, not wishing to point fingers, would make a significant impact by offering fully-electric and hybrid options.

Better information, more appropriately provided, is needed to clarify vehicle choice and availability of recharging infrastructure, to clarify the capability of EVs, to demonstrate fitness for purpose, and to match vehicle to need:

  • Better marketing: literature and advertising needs to provide the right information.
  • Better selling: selling an EV is different to selling a conventional car. Unfamiliar technology opens new questions, from whether a portable electronic device will excessively deplete the vehicle’s battery, to addressing practical concerns about the likely long term costs of repair and servicing.
  • Better business models: some, particularly new entrants to the automotive sector, may feel this warrants a completely new approach to sales and marketing, rather than the conventional showrooms and focus on selling units, and perhaps an accelerated move to mobility-as-a-service.
  • Stimulating the used-car market will be necessary to pull EVs through the fleet, including better information about practical issues like maintenance, charging opportunities at destinations, comparisons between different used models, and easing end-of-life disposal.

Improved vehicle availability, both new and used, will be necessary to facilitate choice. Shortcomings in the supply chain need to be addressed. Waiting for a vehicle is inconsistent with the ‘one click way’ on-demand world being created by other retail sectors. Industrial strategy will need to move production to the UK to create a shorter supply chain. Manufacturers will invest in those countries with more certain and ambitious political goals.

A concluding remark from Madano, who convened the panel and the background research. We set out with this series of articles and panel discussion to explore the barriers to EV uptake and the role of communication. The discussion has highlighted a number of key barriers, ranging public policy through engineering practicality to consumer perception, and we observe that in all cases communication is key, because electric mobility requires whole system change, and this requires joined up thinking. Insight – communication – impact.

This blog is part 1 of a series of 3. Two further blogs will cover the discussion on clearer and longer-term policy, as well as automotive and energy cross-sector alignment.

Our expert panel (from Madano breakfast briefing event 18th July)

Madano is grateful to the expert panel who came together for this discussion and agreed to its write-up:

Angie Boakes, General Manager Electric Mobility, Royal Dutch Shell

Professor Paul Maropoulos, Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Research and Enterprise Knowledge Exchange, Aston University

Evie Martell, Marketing Manager, Chargemaster

Huw Owen, Head of Digital, Tata Motors

Jay Parmar, Policy Director, BVRLA

Valerie Shawcross CBE, Transport for London Board Member, and Former Deputy Mayor of London for Transport (attending in a personal capacity)

Akshai Srinivasan, Electric Mobility Manager, BP

Peter Stephens, Head of External Affairs and Government Relations, Nissan

Electric vehicle uptake: clearing the road blocks

Electric vehicle uptake: clearing the road blocks

The UK Government’s targets for emission reduction put electric vehicles (EVs) at the heart of the strategy to reduce transport emissions, yet EV sales are struggling to achieve the growth needed to deliver the Government’s targets, so what is needed to make the transition a reality?

In our previous two articles in this series Madano has identified a growing gap in the UK between consideration of electric vehicles and actual purchase, and that there has been a recent decrease in pure-electric (non-hybrid) vehicle registrations despite a substantial increase in hybrid-electric vehicle registrations. Lower emissions, high torque, charging at home and silent operation ought to appeal to consumers, but in the year to end March 2018 pure EVs (excluding hybrids) accounted for less than 1% of new registrations. So how can uptake of EVs increase and what are the challenges to overcome?

Barriers to uptake: real or perceived?

Industry research consistently identifies recharging infrastructure, vehicle range, cost of ownership, availability of information and limited vehicle choice as the key to barriers to EV uptake[1]. Yet these barriers are eroding rapidly, without EV uptake rapidly accelerating. So why is that?

Firstly perception lags behind reality, requiring significant investment in communication to shift perception. Secondly, there’s reluctance to be the early adopter, requiring significant investment to promote trial and early uptake. Thirdly, systemic barriers – the hidden barriers to addressing the apparent barriers – require clear focus on wider stakeholder engagement.

Availability of information – room for improvement

So important to the UK Government is the provision of information on EVs that it directly supports the Go Ultra Low information service alongside a limited range of industry operators: Audi, Hyundai, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, the Society of Motor Manufacturers & Traders (SMMT), and the Government’s own Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV).

A recent study reported by the BBC into car dealers in 126 dealerships across 15 cities in Scandinavia and Iceland indicated the dealers perceived EVs as less profitable, lacked technical knowledge and believed that EVs took longer to sell[2]. There is anecdotal evidence the UK is similar.

It’s this alleged reluctance to promote EVs that has led some to argue there’s a key systemic barrier; that key industry players are holding back in the absence of a strong motivation to accelerate the change. With the huge cost of new technology and new model development, billions of dollars invested in conventional drive-trains, vast investment to persuade a hesitant market, and investors keen to harvest the return on sunk capital, why rush? Governments having to step in to accelerate EV development and EV uptake is not necessarily a good sign either; this wasn’t necessary to propel the smart phone in to every household.

Vehicle choice – wider than you might imagine

The choice of EVs has expanded significantly in recent years and is growing rapidly. A recent report by the SMMT[3] identified that there are now 8 fully-electric cars offered by SMMT members to the UK market. This excludes 4 offered by Tesla, which is not an SMMT member. In addition the SMMT identified over 20 plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles. Although clearly not as extensive a range as available with conventional engines, this range includes some of the best-selling models on the market. A senior executive from BMW has subsequently confirmed that all future BMW models will be available with an electric drive-train, and Jaguar has launched its first pure EV; the I-PACE.

Despite this, sales data suggests the range is failing to excite. That’s probably because there’s something reassuring about at technology that’s been refined over 100 years. There’s something tactile in the noise and feel of a conventional engine. And when new leasing pricing models have enabled wider ownership of premium brands – themselves some of the slowest to move into electrification – what’s the incentive to change?

Recharging infrastructure – better than you might think

Public charging connections for UK EVs number about 1 per 8 electric vehicles. In comparison conventional fuel pumps number about 1 per 400 conventionally-fuelled vehicles.[4] While conventional fuel stations dispense energy at a substantially faster rate than electric chargers, the EV recharging network is increasingly able to service demand. And in addition of course, it’s really home-charging that is likely to deliver the bulk of EV recharging, and the domestic grid offers huge untapped potential to supply EVs, although not without immense technical and engineering challenges.

The key issue with home recharging is that around 40% per cent of British households do not have access to off-street parking[5]. The Government’s new ‘Road to Zero’ strategy will help address building regulations to mandate external charge-points in new builds, add charging capability to new street lights, and trial wireless charging. Achieving this and extending charging to older domestic infrastructure will require better engagement between local authorities, householders, property owners and utilities.

Vehicle range – further than you probably need

EVs now have range capability vastly in excess of most consumers’ requirements, yet ‘range anxiety’ remains a concern for many potential EV adopters.

According to Go Ultra Low, two of the UK’s most popular fully-electric vehicles – the VW e-Golf and Nissan Leaf – have a range of 186 miles and 168 miles respectively. Yet according to the 2016 National Travel Survey the average trip made by a person in a household with a car was just 7.2 miles, and even in the peak mileage age group (aged 50-59) average daily mileage was just 19 miles. EVs therefore are particularly suitable for urban locations.

Industry claims risk being undermined by inconsistent measures and unclear messages. The e-Golf and Leaf ranges are measured using two different cycles which are not directly comparable. Tested-range will differ from real-world range due to variations in driving style and conditions, including vehicle load and operating temperature. While vehicles tend to be purchased for the maximum journey distance likely, drivers will tend to take a break, and the range capability between stops is key to meeting most driving requirements.

Cost of ownership – less than you might expect

The purchase and lease cost of EVs has declined to levels within 10-20% of comparable conventional vehicles, and the lifecycle total cost of ownership is less for high-mileage EVs than for conventional vehicles, yet the perception and threat of higher cost lingers.

Where direct comparison is enabled by similar models with alternative drivetrains, EVs are comparing favourably. The comparable recommended on-the-road price of a VW Golf in June 2018, after applying the Plug-in Car Grant (PGC), was lower for a fully-electric model than for a comparable petrol hybrid (Figure 1), although conventional diesel and petrol models were available more cheaply (perhaps being discounted). With hybrid sales rapidly increasing, this suggests it may not be the actual price that’s the barrier; it may be the perceived price combined with reluctance to be the early adopter.

Figure 1: VW Golf Recommended On The Road Retail Prices

Extending cost comparison beyond cost-of-purchase to include the total cost of ownership indicates fully-electric vehicles in the UK cost around 10% to 20% less than for comparable vehicles due to the lower cost of energy and depreciation[6] (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Total Annual Cost Of Vehicle Ownership

Cost comparison for EVs has been aided by relatively low energy prices, including the availability in some areas of free charging. However, fuel duty currently accounts for c.£28bn of UK tax income (3.9% of total receipts)[7]. If petrol and diesel sales are replaced by electric charging, it seems likely the Government will seek to cover the income gap with either road pricing or increased duty on electricity for vehicle charging.

Clearing the road blocks

Addressing these barriers to EV adoption presents a number of communication challenges for the key players in the sector:

Government:

  • Providing relevant but impartial information and support that’s consistent with competition law and state-funding rules.
  • Communicating the longevity of fiscal incentives and taxation regimes to underpin consumer and business confidence in EV acquisition and leasing.
  • Providing clarity of policy, and building long term support and confidence to the sector.

Car companies:

  • Building awareness, understanding, trust, favourability and above all passion among consumers and business buyers.
  • Providing information on EVs in accessible, user-friendly, technologically relevant ways, and training and engaging dealership staff to sell EVs alongside conventional models.
  • Communicating the real range capability of vehicles, not just the projected range, in meaningful ways that build consumer trust.
  • Communicating the true lifetime costs of EVs including realistic maintenance, servicing and parts-replacement costs.
  • With the charging suppliers, communicating the extent and availability of the recharging network, and the process for installing domestic recharging.
  • Communicating the extent of the recharging network and the process for installing domestic recharging in order to improve air quality.
  • Helping businesses and consumers navigate charging networks with different connection and charging capabilities.
  • Communicating charge-point availability and accessibility in real time though digital media directly to the driver in order to secure EV-owner usage and brand loyalty.
  • Communicating the domestic and on-road choices and services available to build network strength and consumer loyalty.
  • Communicating energy pricing and potential future pricing scenarios.
  • Align the interests and resources of the sector to deliver what needs to be an integrated interchangeable recharging system.

Suppliers to car companies:

  • Communicating the impact of new technologies, services and supply-chains on EV efficiency, optimisation and lifecycle costs.

Vehicle rental and leasing companies:

  • Communicating the expected range of vehicles in meaningful ways that build consumer trust to hire an EV.
  • Building understanding of the EV range and its benefits among consumers and business buyers, and clarifying options through the decision-making process.

Local authorities:

  • Communicating the extent of the recharging network and the process for installing domestic recharging in order to improve air quality.
  • Helping business and consumers navigate charging networks with different connection and charging capabilities.

Electricity and charging network suppliers:

  • Communicating charge-point availability and accessibility in real time though digital media directly to the driver in order to secure EV-owner usage and brand loyalty.
  • Communicating the domestic and on-road choices and services available to build network strength and consumer loyalty.
  • Communicating energy pricing and potential future pricing scenarios.

Business and domestic customers:

  • Developing engagement with company fleet drivers to build trial, use and appropriate operation of EVs.
  • Developing and communicating the company sustainability, emissions and fleet strategy, and developing staff and stakeholder engagement.
  • Understanding the growing range and available information, digesting this, and presenting it to consumers in an accessible form.

The transport sector as a whole:

  • Align the interests and resources of the sector to deliver what needs to be an integrated interchangeable recharging system.

Electric vehicles can transform our transport and air quality over the next 20 years but market uptake remains low. Addressing the key barriers to EV uptake has the attention of manufacturers, suppliers, infrastructure providers and policy makers, but now so much of the practical technology exists it also needs the attention of communicators. Capturing the enormous benefits potentially offered by electric vehicles will be enabled by the communicators who can clarify benefits, simplify choice, excite passion and make the change happen.

References

[1] European Automobile Manufacturers Association, 2018; European Joint Research Centre, 2017; UK Department for Transport, 2016.

[2] ‘Car dealer tactics stall electric car sales’, Matt McGrath, Environment correspondent, BBC.

24 May 2018. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/sci…

[3] SMMT Sustainability Report, 2018

[4] Based on c.6,000 EV charging locations with nearly 17,000 charging connectors, including over 3,600 rapid connectors (Zap Map data) serving 142,000 plug-in light-duty vehicles, of which around 40,000 are pure-electric (DfT data), compared to 8,400 conventional fuel stations (Petroleum Retailers Association data) with approximately 67,000 pumps (assuming 8 pumps per station) serving a fleet of over 30 million vehicles.

[5] “43 per cent of British households do not have access to off-street parking, according to estimates by National Grid, operator of the country’s electricity system”. FT, 27/12/17. https://www.ft.com/content/b9c…

[6] Palmer, K, et al, 2018, Journal Applied Energy

[7] Institute for Fiscal Studies, 2016: Survey of the UK tax system, IFS Briefing Note BN09, T. Pope and T. Waters

Electric vehicle uptake: Time to press the accelerator?

Electric vehicle uptake: Time to press the accelerator?

Written by Darran Messem, Director, Transport & Sustainable Development

New vehicle registration data published by the UK Government this month shows a substantial year-on-year increase in hybrid-electric vehicle registrations in Quarter 1 2018, in contrast to a substantial decline in the overall market, and a decrease in pure electric vehicle registrations. The new data confirms the view that whilst there is a significant increase in the number of people considering buying an electric car, the large gap between consideration and purchase suggests that substantial barriers to adoption remain.

Hybrids up; fully-electric down

Nearly 33,000 hybrid-electric vehicles were registered in Q1 2018, according to Department for Transport data. This as an increase of nearly 15% on Q1 2017 hybrid-electric registrations of just over 28,000. In contrast, total new light-duty vehicle registrations fell by 12%, and petrol-only and diesel-only registrations fell by over 13%. Plug-in hybrid-electric registrations increased by 33% from 8,481 vehicles to 11,301, but fully-electric and range-extended electric registrations fell to 4,519 vehicles from 5,502, a decline of 18%, continuing the divergent trend between plug-in hybrid and fully-electric that’s been apparent since quarterly data was first published in 2014.

The data suggests that new vehicle buyers (and leasers) are not sufficiently persuaded by the benefits of electrification to opt for large numbers of fully-electric vehicles. This is despite the growing intention to buy an electric vehicle in the future, highlighted previously. Electric (pure and extended range) vehicles accounted for just 0.62% of total registrations in Q1 2018, compared with 0.67% in Q1 2017, despite the proportion of over-16s intending their next vehicle to be electric rising from 8% to 12% over the same period.

Rich person’s toy?

Regional uptake of Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs) also released by the Department for Transport in June shows that the greatest increase in ULEV uptake between Q1 2018 and Q1 2017 was in relatively affluent commuter areas. The three regions showing the greatest percentage increase were Warwickshire (188%), Gloucestershire (173%) and Oxfordshire (158%). There is anecdotal evidence many EVs and ULEVs are the second cars in a household. It’s also no coincidence that two of these three counties have relatively high exposure to automotive research and manufacturing employment. Unsurprisingly the high-uptake regions have a relatively dense high-speed charging network, but this isn’t necessarily the key driver of increased uptake. The lowest rates of increase were in the North East, Greater Manchester and Lancashire; the latter two also having relatively dense high-speed charging networks.

2040: An achievable target?

The UK Government has set a 2040 target for the replacement of new conventional petrol and diesel engine vehicles with zero-emission vehicles. For this target to be met with plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles (a tougher scenario than including hybrids without plug-in capability), a substantial acceleration in uptake is required. The target is not achievable at the current rate of growth – on a ‘straight-line’ basis – of an additional 0.5 percentage-points market share per annum. A compound annual growth rate of at least 19% will be required. Application of a technology-adoption S-curve model (Rogers, E M., 1962) shows how a typical technology-adoption profile that fits with the trend to date may deliver the target, with the peak rate of growth in the curve of 8.9 percentage points (absolute change) in 2029.

Achieving this rate of increase requires current barriers to adoption to be addressed quite urgently. Given the gap between intent and actual purchase, and the gap between hybrid and pure-electric uptake, the data suggests the appeal of electrification is rising but confidence in electric vehicles has a long way to go to match confidence in internal combustion engines, particularly petrol. In the next article in this series we’ll be looking at the barriers to EV uptake, and particularly how communication can help address them.

On July 18 Madano’s Transport Practice will be hosting a breakfast meeting to discuss our analysis of UK electric vehicle uptake with key industry stakeholders. If you’d like to attend, please contact Darran Messem.

Lifting the barriers to EV uptake – securing clearer and longer-term policy

Electric vehicle uptake: Are the brakes coming off?

Written by Darran Messem, Director, Transport Practice

Newly published UK Government data shows a significant increase in the number of people considering buying an electric car, but the large gap between consideration and purchase shows substantial barriers to adoption remain.

The proportion of UK adults owning or thinking about owning an electric vehicle (EV) increased from 8% in 2017 to 12% in 2018, according to BEIS’s Energy and Climate Change Public Attitudes Tracker (PAT). When multiplied by the UK population aged 16 and over, this represents an estimated accessible EV market in the UK of between 6.4m in 2018, a rise of approximately 50% from 2017. There is a growing gap between considering purchase and actual purchase.

However, fully-electric (non-hybrid) cars accounted for just 0.9% of new car registrations (4,271 units) in the last quarter of 2017. Including plug-in hybrid car registrations takes this number to 2.8% of new registrations (13,600 units) an increase of 54%. As a proportion of all vehicles in the UK, plug-in light-duty vehicles make up just 0.3%.

The gap between consideration and purchase reflects a number of barriers, including purchase cost, vehicle range, access to recharging facilities, the variety of models available and concern about vehicle life and residual values. However the market is rapidly changing. In coming weeks we will be looking at new UK registrations and market data, and highlighting how communication can help close the gap.

FT News: How is pollution affecting our health?

FT News: How is pollution affecting our health?

Madano’s Director of Transport and Sustainable Development Darran Messem, who is also Chairman of the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, spoke on a panel of experts at an FT event in London, moderated by FT Science editor Clive Cookson.

The UK is among six EU member states referred to Europe’s highest court this month over a failure to clean up “significant and persistent” air pollution. So how bad is the problem and what impact is it having on our health?

Other panelists were Laurie Laybourn-Langton of the UK Health Alliance on Climate Change and Ian Mudway, air toxicity specialist at King’s College London.

To listen to the podcast: https://www.acast.com/ft-news/…

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